Since Turkmenistan's independance was declared, unfortunately health rates have dropped across the country and diseases once declared iradicated are now rearing their ugly heads again such as Diphtheria and Tuberculosis. HIV is also a growing health threat in Turkmenistan.
Health services in the country aren't the best so it's worth making sure your vaccinations are up to date and that you have comprehensive travel insurance. While it's always a good idea to take any medications you may need with you, make sure you have a doctors letter outlining the reasons for it otherwise you may be refused entry on arrival. In Turkmenistan, some medications such as codeine are considered illegal. Always declare any medications on arrival into the country.
Play it safe and stick to cooked food - typhoid is not uncommon and can linger in salads and cold meat.
Do not drink the tap water anywhere which may contain traces of metal.
The weather in Turkmenistan can get quite hot during summer so it's important to stay hydrated and cover up to prevent sunburn and heat exhaustion.
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