Like any other country in the world, there is a risk of catching a disease in Mozambique. However, unlike every other country, the risk is a littler larger, and the possible diseases are little more serious than the common cold or flu.
Be vigilant when travelling to Mozambique and with a little luck, you'll be able to avoid the hospitals. All these diseases can be prevented with mosquito protection: repellant, long, loose-fitting clothes, and mosquito nets. And anti-malarial pills are a must.
Unfortunately, Mozambique is still burdened by measles, a disease virtually eradicated in developed countries thanks to early vaccination. In June 2011, the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention inacted a measles alert for Mozambique.
(Slightly better looking at the molecular level than what your skin will look like if you get measles!)
This highly contagious disease spreads by contact with infected people. Travellers who aren't vaccinated are at risk of getting it and passing it to friends once they come home. It's important that all of your vaccines are up to date.
As of 2007, anyone who visits a country where yellow fever is present must have a certificate of vaccination against the disease. If you can't prove that you're inoculated, you can be vaccinated at the port of entry, but it will cost you US$50 or the local equivalent.
Cholera is common, especially during the rainy season, but the World Health Organization has not issued an outbreak alert since 2004. It's always safer to drink bottled or boiled water, and to avoid ice in drinks. Get medical attention as soon as you feel any symptoms, diarrhoea being the main one.
(It may look clean, but it's never smart to grab a handful of water from the local river)
Malaria and dengue fever are problems in all regions of the country at all times, but the risks spike in the rainy season of November to May.
There is also the low--but rising threat--of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), which is transmitted by the tsetse fly. As the name suggests, it makes the victims feel uncontrollable drowsiness, but also insomnia at night along with fever, headache, and mood swings.
Not a health risk but a safety one: cyclones occasionaly hit the coastal areas during the rainy season. They can get vicious and destroy homes, schools, hospitals, flood cities, and leave thousands homeless. Seek sturdy shelter in case of one and follow alerts from your embassy.
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