One of Canada's major attractions as a holiday destination is the diversity of its terrain, which just so happens to be ripe for skiing and snowboarding. From soaring peaks to expansive plains, fjords and rainforests to lakes to desolate arctic tundra, there's so much to explore. There is, however, one feature that transcends Canada's geographical gamut, one word that can encompass this land: cold.
Although Canadians will be quick to point out to tourists the difference between cold and cold, for most of us the winter temperatures here sink far below anything we're used to back home. With the mercury consistently below -30°C in a large portion of the country, the extremes of the Canadian winter are dangerous and potentially deadly to tourists and locals alike.
Yet most cold weather injuries and incidents are the result of carelessness or a lack of knowledge. With the right packing, planning and preparation you'll have nothing to fear from Jack Frost.
The most important weapon in your winter arsenal is awareness. Always make sure to check the weather forecast before heading out and take special notice of any extreme weather warnings. There are regular weather updates on TV and radio, or you can check conditions online, here.
Although Vancouver and the southwest coast experience comparatively mild winters, sudden changes in weather are not uncommon. Wind chill is also huge factor when considering cold. Whether you're sitting on a chairlift in Whistler or walking along the Canadian coastline, a strong breeze is enough to cut through your clothing and wreak havoc on exposed skin. Although weather reports will usually include a wind chill warning, make sure you prepare for sudden blustery weather with wind resistant clothing.
More clothing is the obvious answer to extreme cold. Wear lots of layers; take a hat, gloves, a scarf and something to cover your face. In fact, just remember to stop and think about what your mother might say before stepping out the door.
This all sounds like common sense, but there a few small things people often forget that could make big difference.
Unlike wool or polyester fleece, cotton won't provide any warmth if you get wet – which, since cotton also tends to make you a little sweaty, could be problematic. Try to avoid wearing a lot of cotton if you know it's going to be cold – for example, if you're in Canada during winter.
The ground is going to be much colder than the air temperature, and if your shoes have thin soles or are leaking water, you'll lose a large amount of body heat through your feet.
While exercising is a good way to increase your body temperature in a crisis, it is also wise to unzip the outer layers of your clothing as you heat up. In extreme cold sweat will freeze to your skin, and sap your body heat.
Although Canada is a very dry country overall, Vancouver experiences almost double the annual rainfall of that famously soggy city, London. So, remember to take an umbrella or wear waterproof clothing. The thickest jacket won't help if you're soaked to the skin.
Warm drinks are a great way to ward off the cold, but alcohol and caffeine will actually make you lose heat more rapidly. Both shift blood flow to your extremities, so while you may feel warmer, you really aren't – something to keep in mind if you choose to walk home from the pub.
Most importantly, never go outside without rugging up first, even if it's just to put out the garbage. Every Canadian has their own story about someone who got locked out of the house in their pyjamas/bath robe/underwear and froze to death on their own doorstep.
These may be nothing but urban myths, but there a plenty of documented incidents. In early 2011 an elderly woman froze to death in a residential driveway just minutes from her home in Toronto.
If you do find yourself caught out in the cold, the two major threats are hypothermia and frostbite.
In extreme cold, exposed skin can become frostbitten in 30 seconds, so cover up as quickly and completely as you can. Areas affected by frostbite will look pale grey or white, and have a waxy texture. You could experience numbness or localized pain, as well as swelling and blistering.
Whatever you do, don't rub or massage the affected area, and don't expose your skin to direct heat. Use your own body temperature or press something warm against the area. If possible, avoid warming up your skin until you know you can keep it warm.
Frostbite is a very serious condition, affecting not only the skin but also underlying tissue, including muscle and bone. Bad cases can result in amputation, so seek treatment as soon as possible.
However, don't panic and rush yourself off to hospital at the first little tingle. There is a less severe form called frostnip, which affects only the outer layers of skin. It's common when skiing or snowboarding, most often on the cheeks and the tip of the nose, and is characterized by soft yellowish or white skin and a painful tingling or burning sensation.
You can generally use the warmth of your hand to bring a bit of life back to the area. But remember, don't rub unless you want a nasty raw rash.
If you're stuck out in the cold, you need to watch for signs of hypothermia, in yourself and in friends or family. If someone is shivering, seems confused, weak or starts mumbling they could be in trouble. Get them inside or into shelter as soon as possible, remove any wet clothing and try to gradually raise their body temperature.
If you are traveling with children or an elderly relative, be aware they will be more susceptible to the cold. Dry, frigid air can also exacerbate the symptoms of asthma, so make sure to keep a close eye on your kids and companions.
Although Canada is renowned for its arctic weather, it does also boast a pleasant summer. However, along with the warmer weather comes a new range of meteorological extremes.
Canada is hit by more tornados than any country except the USA, with the vast majority occurring in June and July. While you would have to be very unlucky to find yourself in the path of a twister, if you are traveling in Canada during these months be mindful of warnings and weather reports and perhaps keep an eye on the horizon.
Thunderstorms are frequent in Canada, especially along the west coast. While not generally dangerous some may intensify and disrupt or delay your travel plans.
Blackouts resulting from storm damage can also affect the heating in your accommodation, so be prepared to find some extra blankets or share body warmth if the power goes out during winter.
Canada's dry winters are followed by dry summers, meaning fires are a risk all year. If you are planning to go hiking or camping in the forests or plains in western Canada, make sure to check here for the current fire danger levels.
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