How to Stay Safe on India's Roads & Public Transport

Experiencing the traffic in India is not for the faint hearted. So, before you go, here are a few things to know.


Before you hit the highway in India, be aware that more people die on India's roads per capita than anywhere in the world.

In 2015, 146,133 people lost their lives on India's roads. That's despite having only 32 cars per 1,000 people.

To put this into perspective, the United States has 797 vehicles per 1,000.

Driving in India

Irresponsible driving habits, insufficient highway infrastructure development, and other hazards make traveling on India's roads a nerve wrecking (and potentially life threatening) experience.

And we haven't even mentioned the wandering livestock yet...

Cows are holy in India, in fact a whopping 30% of the world's cattle live here.

You will find them casually ambling along main roads in India, sometimes blocking traffic, and all you can do is wait for them to meander out of the way. Or if you're traveling at high speeds (you or your driver, not the cow), swerve to avoid them.

A first encounter with a typical Indian highway will no doubt feature a traffic mix of lumbering trucks, speeding maniacs, blithely wandering cows and suicidal pedestrians – all weaving across a narrow, potholed strip of tarmac.

Most road signs are not very reliable in the country, and in most cases will give drivers very confusing or inaccurate information.

Travelers should be cautious when visiting villages and rural areas in the night. Bandits occasionally abduct and rob tourists, as they assume tourists possess large amounts of cash and goodies for them to re-sell. So it's always a good idea to be safely checked in to your hotel by nightfall.

Even on buses you can run into problems. Think twice about taking night buses in rural areas, as bandits are known to stop night buses with fake checkpoints and rob everyone inside.

A Guide to Riding the Bus in India

But such problems might seem positively exciting compared to the more mundane issues you will face inside one of the country's buses.

Crowded train in India. Photo credit: Julián Manrique

If you've got a window seat - at least you'll get some fresh air. But you'll also get the occasional face full of exhaust fumes and will be well within spitting range of any passing camels.

In the aisle at least you'll have some more leg room but be prepared to have your toes stepped on and various objects shoved in your face whenever passengers load or unload.

Beware of goods stowed above your head, inevitably they will end up in your lap as you hit one of the many bumps in the road.

Also remember traditions are very different in India. The driver is fully within his rights to stop the bus every half hour so he can have a yak or a card game by the side of the road while you wait patiently on the bus.

And with a population of over a billion, get used to being pushed and shoved when attempting to queue or board public transport. You'll soon learn to hold your ground.

And while travelling on public transport do not accept any food or drink from any co-passenger even if they are very friendly or polite. There have been instances where the food and drink has been spiked.

Of course this is all assuming you have a ticket. Buying tickets for public transport is an epic experience, so be prepared.

While getting about India is not easy it's also one of the best ways to see the countryside while experiencing all the tastes and smells of this amazing country - literally.

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  • kaustubh said

    for buses you can use RED BUS services which is good and connect all major destinations.

  • On the bus to Dharamshala said

    I've travelled around a dozen times between Delhi and Dharamshala in Himachal Pradesh and it's not nearly as bad as described above. I stay at Wongdhen House in Majnu ka Tilla where the hotel staff arrange the bus ticket - or there are travel agents' shops where you can easily buy one. The choice is between aircon and non-aircon buses. Personally I prefer non-aircon, as the aircon is invariably freezing on the ones I've used. If you get a seat near the front of the bus it makes for a better ride. The baggage is in the boot so the only hassle there is the struggle to get to your luggage when everyone gets off at the final destination - which on the D'asa/Delhi bus is always around 5am when you are not feeling your best. You stop for a meal on the way (have some coins handy to pay the toilet wallah) and usually also stop in the middle of the night for chai. Other toilet stops can be a bit problematical - in the middle of nowhere at times, so a torch is necessary. Take enough layers of clothing to keep warm as it gets colder there higher you climb into the mountains. On the aircon bus you get water and a blanket and the seats are marginally more comfortable, but be prepared for the aircon to be chilly all night. Bon voyage!

  • Clare said

    Cows are a minor problem...the roads are full.of unlicensed drivers without a clue about road rules. Undertaking's chaos and insanity on indian roads. Drunk drivers are common seat belts...poorly built vehicles that crumple like tin cans...people chatting on phones as they drive and general aggressive driving speeding and idiots around.....really make the cows the least of the problems on indias roads.

    Certainly not kansas. ..more like a pot holed tarmac hell on which your chances of surviving are slim to none

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