It's definitely not on the usual African tourist trail but for adventurous travellers there's plenty to uncover, most notably the Bijagos - Africa's only archipelago.
But as always, behind the sense of adventure lies some real danger. Struggling infrastructure, language barriers, political unrest and widespread smuggling of drugs, arms and people mean if you run into trouble here, you could have a hard time finding help. This isn't an excuse to avoid Guinea Bissau, but a reason for some solid planning, to help you both avoid trouble and handle any that comes your way.
(Image: soschildrensvillages.uk.org one of many charities working in Guinea Bissau)
Guinea Bissau's poverty is largely the result of a string of conflicts and power struggles. Since winning independence from Portugal in a bloody and protracted conflict the people have Guinea Bissau have suffered through civil war, countless coups and political assassinations.
The political environment is very unstable here and the very people tasked with maintaining order are often the first ones to upset the applecart.
Frustrated with the ingrained corruption, in 2010 the EU abandoned its mission to reform the nation's security forces and bring an end to the political power grabbing.
Avoid any demonstrations or large gatherings. They have the potential to turn violent very quickly.
You should also have an exit strategy in case things get truly out of hand. While foreigners aren't generally targeted in these political struggles, you don't want to find yourself stuck in the middle of widespread violence.
The Bijagos Archipelago is largely removed from mainland conflict but while you may feel safe and secure, it's best to heed travel warnings and make like a tree.
If you can get to Bissau's international airport, TAP Air flies direct to Lisbon and there are several services to Dakar.
Travelling overland, the highways of the north passage to Senegal would be your most reliable, if not your safest route.
Guinea Bissau's official language is Portuguese but indigenous languages or creole are just as common, which can make it difficult to gather information. If you're unsure of the situation or how to respond, one of the many NGOs doing aid work in Guinea Bissau should be able to get you up to date and on the right track. It's a good idea to have some of their numbers written down as well as their bases of operations.
The beautiful Bijagos Archipelago is the feather in Guinea Bissau's tourism cap. Now a Unesco Biosphere reserve, there's plenty of diving and fishing to be done while you potter between the islands. But whether you're there to admire the marine life or conquer it, the relaxed, and insulated atmosphere is intoxicating.
Unfortunately the same sense of isolation and privacy that attracts adventurers to this archipelago also appeals to drug smugglers, who use it as a platform between Latin America and Europe.
Several hundred kilos of cocaine are thought to pass through the islands each week but smugglers are a surreptitious lot and chances are you'll be none the wiser.
If you come across any packages washed up on the beach, don't let your curiosity get the better of you. This isn't the Hardy Boys. It's best to turn around and head back the other way.
The same applies if you stumble upon any strange clearings while wandering. Chances are it's one of the many secret airstrips used to unload wares and probably not somewhere you want to hang around.
Don't assume uniforms deserve your trust here either. The nation's corrupt leaders and security staff are thought to play a big part in the drug trade here. In fact the Chiefs of Staff of both Guinea Bissau's Navy and Air Force are on the US State Department's drug kingpin list.
For travelling around the coast or between the Bijagos islands your main choices are the cheap but rickety motorised canoes or the more modern and expensive (but safer) boats owned by the many fishing lodges dotted throughout the archipelago.
Some places hire out boats but the confusing currents that run through the islands make for dangerous conditions and it's best if you leave the navigation to a local expert.
Despite the crippling poverty, serious crime is relatively low in Guinea Bissau - Relatively. As drug trafficking through the country has become more prevalent, so has narcotics use and the crime that comes with it. In short, you shouldn't be strolling around like you would in your home neighbourhood. There are still plenty of dark corners and shadowed streets to avoid. In fact, because of unreliable public power, almost all the streets and alleys are dark after dusk. It's best to stay off the streets at night.
Tourists are few and far between here and will inevitably draw attention, mostly friendly and helpful, but flashy displays of wealth could attract the wrong kind of interest. Keep any jewellery or expensive gear hidden away and be wary of watchful eyes.
There are very few ATMs in Guinea Bissau and almost no credit card facilities. It's a cash economy and as such you'll likely be carrying more than you're usually comfortable with.
If possible, try to work out what you need for the day, with perhaps a little emergency money stashed somewhere on your person. Keep a small amount handy for little purchases like food and trinkets. You don't want to be thumbing through a wad of bills in plain sight.
The Bandim Markets are a trove of the black market by-products of drug and gun smuggling and you can find a weird array of stuff here (just be careful about taking it home). But with the produce come the suppliers, who can be rather shady characters. You need to be very wary of pickpockets or other interested parties while here. The same goes for other markets or crowded places throughout the country.
It's particularly important to look after your documents in Guinea Bissau. Between anti-trafficking efforts, roving militaries and aid organisations, you could be flashing your I.D. quite a bit. A lack of international embassies and officials also means it can be rather difficult to replace a lost passport here. (Your best bet is usually to duck over to Senegal, but this can be tricky without a passport.)
To avoid the inconvenience of a potential Catch 22 it's best to carry copies of all your important documents and keep the originals back at your accommodation or stashed deep in your pack.
Guinea Bissau's transport system can be a little unreliable at best. Minibuses (toca toca) and taxis service the cities, while sept-places (seven seater 4WDs) and candongas (big commercial vehicles) run between the cities. However all of these can be a bit of a struggle, especially in the monsoonal wet season, so you may find your best option is to hire a 4WD.
The roads aren't particularly well maintained, even in the capital, and driving standards here are a little less controlled that you are probably used. Its best to restrict your travel to daytime, to reduce the danger of accidents and also because there are instances of banditry on some rural roads.
During the wet season lots of roads become completely impassable. The lack of traffic in Guinea Bissau means if you try your luck and get stuck you could be there for days. Make sure you always have plenty of food and water and don't overestimate your car in dodgy conditions.
Landmines are a threat in Guinea Bissau. A legacy from the country's conflicted past, the landmines have been cleared from the capital Bissau, but still lie scattered around the countryside in the Bafata, Oio, Biombo, Quinara and Tombali regions. Stick to driving on paved roads whenever possible and make sure to talk to locals if you're planning to head off the beaten path. They obviously won't be able to point out individual explosives but they will warn you of any danger zones or previous accidents.
There isn't much in the way of modern medical facilities in Guinea Bissau so any sickness is a serious situation. As they say, prevention is better than cure so plenty of preparation on your behalf is wise.
Yellow fever vaccination is essential, as are antimalarials. Both diseases are carried by mosquitos so you should also cover up and take plenty of strong insect repellent.
In 2008 there was a cholera outbreak in the south of the country which then spread to other provinces, eventually claiming over 200 lives. For this reason any stomach upsets or diarrhoea should be taken very seriously.
There is an oral cholera vaccine Dukoral that has the bonus effect of protecting against traveller's diarrhoea, which could be wise investment.
However it doesn't provide 100 per cent immunity so you will still need to be very careful with water and any uncooked food.
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