Every muslim is expected to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life - cheap jet travel has made that possible for more and more people.
But because they arrive at the same time to visit the same places, it causes a logistical nightmare with sometimes fatal consequences.
Between 1990 and 2015, thousands of pilgrims have lost their lives in stampedes and crowd crushes.
It is highly recommend that pilgrims listen carefully to all instructions and warnings issued by the Saudi Arabian government to insure the religious event runs smoothly and safely.
(This is a relatively small crowd.)
Hajj is for Muslims only, and there are plenty of signs letting you know if you're straying into an area that is intended for Muslims only, usually with helpful arrows on the main roads saying "Muslims Only" with big arrows pointing the other way for "Non-Muslims". So be careful of this, because if you're a non-Muslim and enter one of the Muslim only regions, it is considered sacrilege and the penalty can be prison or deportation if Saudi Arabian government forces catch you and possibly worse if non-government forces (local citizens) do.
There are vaccination requirements for entering Saudi Arabia during Hajj, and these include proof of vaccination for meningitis, specifically the ACYW135 strain, Yellow Fever if you arrive from a country with known infections, and vaccination against polio for children up to the age of fifteen. Hajj attracts literally millions of people from all over the world, so it is advised that you discuss with your doctor what vaccinations may be advisable.
As many as three million people a year go there to perform Umrah (all year around pilgrimage) and Hajj (major annual pilgrimage).
If you are visiting Saudi Arabia as a Muslim to attend Hajj, be aware that there are new restrictions in place regarding how frequently you can go. Currently, you are not allowed to go more than once every five years to accommodate the vast number of visitors annually.
The major danger in attending Hajj occurs during the ritual of Jamaraat, The Stoning of The Devil.
Statistically speaking, this is by far the most dangerous period during Hajj as many people have literally been trampled to death within the crowds of pilgrims in previous years. In 2015, over 2000 people were killed in a stampede near the Jamaraat Bridge.
Crowd crushes and stampedes are a very real danger during Hajj as the rush of pilgrims to move from one station to another of the pilgrimage can cause panic.
It is advisable that you remain aware of this at all times. Over the last 25 years, thousands of people have died.
The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Hajj offers the following advice for remaining safe during Jamaraat.
1. Adhere to the schedules designated for you by the Mutawwif.
2. Adhere to the lanes designated for proceeding to the Jamaraat and returning from Jamaarat.
3. Avoid pushing your fellow pilgrims and proceed quietly and calmly.
4. Do not carry personal effects.
5. Do not walk against the direction of the traffic.
This advice is important to follow, as several of the incidents of stampede have occurred due to people trying to exit from the wrong lanes.
Other than stampede, major dangers include fire that may break out amongst tents.
No-one said it would be easy, and it's not meant to be, but this is a sacred duty for all muslims to make at least once in their lifetime.
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