COVID-19 (coronavirus) update: Though the land border between the US and Mexico is closed to non-essential traffic, Mexico is open to visitors from around the world. Read the latest travel restrictions and how they may affect you. Keep in mind that this article was written before the pandemic, and take appropriate steps to stay safe.
From October 31 to November 2, Mexico celebrates the famous, colorful Día de
One of the biggest misconceptions of this festival is that it is "Mexican Halloween". That couldn't be further from the truth.
So, if you want to indulge in a lighthearted vision of eternal life, it's time to suspend disbelief and immerse yourself in a 2,500-year-old celebration of life and death.
Locals prepare for the festivities by joining the crowds at the market to purchase the biggest, brightest bunch of cempazúchitl (marigolds) and other flowers. They will also head to the local bakery for a few loaves of the season's signature delicacy, pan de muerto (bread of the dead) or prepare their own. The bread is decorated is often decorated with bones and skulls, then eaten graveside or offered to the deceased. It's a serious and draining journey traveling to and from the afterlife.
At midnight, Mexican families decamp to the cemetery, loaded up with the dead person's favorite meal (generally a classic Mexican dish such as
As the dead bless their living relatives with prosperity or affliction, according to how much effort their nearest and dearest have devoted to the preparation of their ofrenda, there's a fair amount of one-upmanship. In some Mexican cities and towns, there are competitions for the altars, with the biggest and most beautiful ones winning awards.
In touristy spots, a more opportunistic mood prevails, with mariachi bands offering their own classics (for a fee) and children hawking religious figurines.
If you are keen to participate in or observe one of Mexico's indigenous traditions, it's important to plan ahead and choose your location wisely. Celebrations reach mythical proportions in southern Mexico, where indigenous culture is strongest. Once you leave behind the tourist trinkets and abandon the vigil/party frenzy, Day of the Dead comes about as close to an out-of-body experience as you can get. It's worth remembering that, in remote locations, infrastructure can be basic and finding a place to stay can be challenging.
It's no surprise that Lake Pátzcuaro translates as the "place where one finds stones that mark the entrance to paradise." Clearly, the indigenous Purépecha have always lived with one eye focused on the next world. Even (or rather, especially) outside of Día de los Muertos, the six islands of Lake Pátzcuaro (Jaracuaro, Tecuena, Yunuen, Pacanda, Janitzio, and Uranden) represent one of Mexico's most intense spiritual experiences.
For Day of the Dead, as many as 100,000 visitors converge on Pátzcuaro to witness the Purépecha commune with the netherworlds and perform outlandish rituals in the local cemetery.
Janitzio Island is the feverish epicenter for visitor activity; the arrival of canoes draped with flowers ushers in the nocturnal celebration in honor of lost souls.
On the islands of Yunuen and Uranden, the preternatural aura remains tangible despite the festival's increased commercialization and tendency towards inebriated revelry.
On Day of the Dead, in the small town of Pomuch in Campeche, custom dictates that relatives visit the cemetery, exhume the bones of their deceased relatives (they must have been dead for three years) and participate in a ritual cleaning of the remains. The newly buffed bones are placed on a wooden box and covered with a cloth mantle embroidered by the deceased person's significant other. The skeletal remains are then placed in open ossuaries until the following year when the bones will be cleansed once again.
The tradition, which dates to ancient Mayan practices when the skulls of ancestors were revered, is fervently observed. Any families caught slacking will incur the wrath of the dead relative, who will prowl the streets of town for eternity.
Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the placid waterways and artificial islands (known as chinampas) of Xochimilco, on the outskirt of Mexico City, are the last vestiges of an ancient system of farming that became the economic foundation for Aztec hegemony.
Day of the Dead is a kaleidoscopic extravaganza here, as local families, resplendent in their traditional dress, and visitors navigate the maze of islands on whimsically decorated wooden boats called trajineras.
You can hire your own boat, complete with a mariachi band, and buy samples of the season's culinary offerings from entrepreneurial vendors on passing boats. Around midnight, a more ethereal mood holds sways as locals head to the cemetery of San Gregorio Atlapulco for an all night candle-lit vigil beside graves carpeted with marigolds.
Oaxaca loves a party. With its renowned artisanal flair, strong indigenous traditions and acclaimed molecular cuisine, observances of Day of the Dead in Oaxaca are rich and highly seductive.
The city's cemeteries provide the stage for a theater of the absurd with fun fairs, vendors selling candy crucifixes, and dance troupes performing with atavistic abandon. There are countless evening processions called comparsas, and homes are lavishly decorated. Many Oaxaqueños dress up as Catrina, an icon of Day of the Dead celebrations, with her white-painted face and aristocratic glad rags.
The creation of famed Mexican artist Jose Guadalupe Posada, Catrina satirized women who denied their indigenous heritage in favor of what they deemed European sophistication during the pre-revolutionary era.
As always, common sense protocol should apply in crowded settings.
When visiting cemeteries, even a basic knowledge of Spanish will facilitate your immersion into the festive rituals. In most locales, you'll find an upbeat spirit prevails and, generally, families are keen to share stories about their departed and welcome you into their jovial enclave. While most Mexicans will happily debate their supernatural proclivities, some families prefer to maintain a dignified silence and would clearly like to be left alone.
While photography is common, always discreetly ask permission before taking closer shots.
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